Mao Tse Tung and the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution


Sarinda Wongkosolsuk


This research paper is mostly specific on Mao Tse Tung and the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976 in China. The research paper gives analysis and proving that Mao Tse Tung, the chairman of the People’s Republic of China, should be responsible for his failure in launching the Cultural Revolution. Definition, cause and effect, and argumentation are used in order to support the theory of this research paper that, “the Cultural Revolution should never have happened.” This covers all the happenings in the Cultural Revolution from the first beginning, the aim of the revolution, the advantages and disadvantages of this revolution, and how it ended.

1. The Introduction

I. Revolution
– The definition of the revolution
– Some example of other revolutions in other countries such as French Revolution and American Revolution

II. Background information of Mao Tse Tung
– October 1st, 1949 is the day that Mao Tse Tung and his Chinese Communist Party (CCP) proclaimed the People’s Republic of China
– His proposes of proclaiming the People’s Republic of China
– His past campaigns
– There were two revolutions under Mao’s command: the Chinese Revolution (proclaiming the People’s Republic of China), and the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution

III. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
– The aim of this campaign (Causes)
– How it different from the other revolutions
– What it brought to China (Effects) – only main topics
– Claim “No Cultural Revolution, better China.”

2. The Body Paragraph

I. Reasons and Evidences that the Cultural Revolution should never have happened
1) Mao’s government was not successful with this campaign
2) The formation of the Red Guards
– The aim of these military groups
– What they did
– The competitions and arguments among the Red Guards
3) Losses and damages of the country
– Deaths, and abuses
– The destruction of all things foreign
– The destruction of the “Four Olds”
– The destruction of the Chinese youth
* Red Guards were subdued by the PLA
* Increase numbers of illiteracy
– Chaos

II. Emotional Appeals
1) Needs
– Starvation (example)
* Deaths (example)
* Cannibalism (example)
2) Values
– Unfair (example)
– Unjust (example)
– Unsafe (example)

III. The opposing viewpoints
1) Made some progresses in developing the country. Most specific in the rural areas
– Developments of industrial and agricultural
– The emphasis on medical care
– The emphasis on education
– Rapid development afterward because Mao had destroyed the “Four Olds” and invented new patterns of lives to Chinese people
2) However, all these are materialistic development
3) Mao did not give any actual value to the people in the Cultural Revolution

3. The Conclusion

1. When it ended – Mao died
2. “The Communist Party of China denounced this period as a grave error in 1981” (Powerhouse Musuem, 2003, p.4)
3. Some progresses in developing the country could not cover the cost of things that China had lost and damaged
– All losses would never happened
4. However, the Cultural Revolution had already happened
– Study the past and not let the history repeats itself once again
5. Mao never lost his honor, even though this revolution was failed
– How Chinese paid respects to him

A revolution

What is a revolution? According to Oxford Student’s Dictionary of English, “a revolution is action taken by a large group of people to try to change the government of a country, especially by violent action” (Oxford University Press, 2001, p.547.) Two great examples of revolutions in the world are the American Revolution in 1776, which gave equality and freedom from the British to all Americans, and the French Revolution in 1789, which let to great changes in French society and brought liberty and equality to the citizens.

China, a big country which has a lengthy history, also had to face revolutions inevitably. In the twentieth century, there were only two revolutions that happened in China and both of them were caused to different degrees by one of the most powerful persons in the world, Mao Tse Tung, who governed China and the Chinese population, almost one billion people, for more than twenty-five years (Vierboom, 2000, p1.)

“A revolution is not the same as inviting people to dinner, or writing an essay, or painting a picture, or doing embroidery; it cannot be so refined, so calm and gentle, or so mild, courteous, restrained and magnanimous. A revolution is an act of violence by which one class overthrows another” (Brooman, 1998, p.27.) This was written by Mao Tse Tung in 1927. He stated that an act of revolution could not be done without violence. As long as the revolution has good aim, it can be performed. This is not true because every problem always has a solution and it can be found with peace or violence. Although there will be violence in some cases, we can make it less.

Mao Tse Tung and his revolutions

On October 1st, 1949, China was proclaimed as a communist country, by Mao Tse Tung, the chairman of the People’s Republic of China. At Tiananmen Square in Beijing, he told “to a crowd of 300,000 people that the new government would provide China with peace, unity, prosperity and freedom” (Brooman, 1998, p.27.) This revolution was also called “the Chinese Revolution” because it ended the war in China which caused by the Kuomintang or the National People’s Party. The revolution brought mass changes to all Chinese people. Mao developed the country very well by launching many useful campaigns and introducing many laws during the period of his administration. Some of Mao’s important campaigns were the Common Programme in 1949, the Marriage Law and the Agrarian Reform Law in 1950, the Mass Campaigns in 1951, the Five-Year Plan and the Hundred Flowers campaign from 1953 to 1957, the Great Leap Forward in 1958, and so on. As a result, people obeyed and gave him full respect as if he was a god, during his administration. At the present time, he is the so-called father of modern China.

However, not all of his campaigns gave good advantages to the country, for instance, the Great Leap Forward in 1958 caused deaths of more than thirty million people, and the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1969, one of the most damaging campaigns, brought a huge disaster to China (Brooman, 1998, p.38.) We can claim that the Cultural Revolution should never have happened.

The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution

After the failures of the Great Leap Forward, Mao Tse Tung had a weaker position in the Communist Party. Some of the members in the party, especially Liu Shao Qi, the head of the state, and Deng Xiao Ping, General Secretary of the Party, opposed his coming plans and ideas. Later, Mao got new support from the minister of national defense, Lin Piao, and the People’s Liberation Army (PLA.) In the mid 1960’s, as Mao Tse Tung found that China was becoming capitalist and accepting the Western style more and more, he launched his new campaign, the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, to solve these problems as well as to regain his authority in the Party and to subdue the “Gang of Fours”, the group of four powerful people whom tried to seize his authority. Although Mao’s intention in launching the Cultural Revolution, “was to ‘train revolutionary successors’” (Meisner, 1999, p.373) was good, the results meant changes in the opposite direction from what he had thought.

In 1966, Mao set up “The Red Guards”, by recruiting the students from Beijing University to serve in the military. The goals of the Red Guards, “was to get rid of all ‘capitalist’ and ‘bourgeois’ influences” (Brooman, 1998, p.38), which were the obstacles to Mao’s campaign. We could say that the Red Guards were the agents of Mao in this revolution.

No government can succeed if the country is immersed in chaos and people are murdered and intimidated. The Cultural Revolution brought huge disaster and massive damages to the country. Mao’s campaign was unsuccessful and caused plenty of losses to China.

The destruction of all things foreign and all things old

The “Sixteen Articles” were set up as purposes and instructions for the Red Guards. Two main matters of the articles were “the overthrow of those within the party who are in authority and taking the capitalist road” (Meisner, 1999, p.318), and the destruction of the “bourgeois influences” (Brooman, 1998, p.38.) Therefore, the Red Guards began their first task by attacking all things foreign, and all things old.

The Red Guards denounced thousands of people who were revisionists and capitalists. They marched along the streets and destroyed all shops which sold Western goods, such as cosmetics, Western clothes and luxuries. The museums, art galleries, and theaters were shut down. Destroying capitalism caused the economics in China to drop slowly. The Red Guards also took control of the Foreign Ministry in Beijing and made problems with other countries, such as Burma and England. Moreover, monasteries, churches, temples, mosques, and all things that related to any religion were all burnt.

One way to extinguish the bourgeoisie class, who was mostly intellectuals, and “bad” class people, who were landlords, rich peasants and the capitalists, was to destroy the “Four Olds,” which were “old ideas, old culture, old customs and old habits” (Powerhouse Museum, 2003, p.1.) So they could never find ways to support themselves like they had done before. Old Chinese traditions were banned. The historical relics, books, and art treasures were all burnt by the Red Guards. The old teachers were all fired by Mao because he though that old teachers would teach something old to the students. A by-product of the destruction of the “Four Olds” was that Mao could bring his new ideas to the Chinese people easier.

The deaths of more than 400,000 people and the abuses of countless people

Mao Tse Tung supported all activities of the Red Guards, which increased the number of the Red Guard members and made them more violent. They challenged all laws without fear because they had great support. Mao Tse Tung, as their helmsman and powerful backer, encouraged the Red Guards to rebel. He said, “To rebel is justified” (Brooman, 1998, p39.) The government provided free transportation, food, and lodging for all the Red Guards during the revolution. The PLA also gave them military support. Moreover, the policemen were commanded “not to oppose them” (Brooman, 1998, p39.)

More than 400,000 people were killed in this revolution and countless people were beaten up, tormented, imprisoned, mistreated, and starved. Most victims were innocent people, such as students, intellectuals, landlords, rich peasants, and famous people, whom were punished by the Red Guards and the PLA. They beat every person, whom went against their rules: “They shaved off the hair of girls with Western hairstyles and ripped off Western style clothes” (Brooman, 1998, p38.)

“Throughout the ten years of the Cultural Revolution, thousands of the party leaders were” (, 2000, p.2-3) banished, imprisoned or disappeared without any trace. Some of the Red Guard’s targets were well-known persons whom were once members of the communist party, such as Liu Shao Qi, who had been the president of the state, was labeled as “the chief capitalist roader” (Ebrey, 1996, p.316), and Deng Xiao Ping, General Secretary of the Party, was labeled as “the second-chief capitalist roader” (Meisner, 1999, p.320.) “Over a period of months Mao put pressure on the pair” (Terril, 1995, p.356.) Actually, the reason for putting a label on Liu Shao Qi and Deng Xiao Ping was that they did not agree with Mao’s campaign in the Cultural Revolution and tried to obstruct him. Liu Shao Qi and four people in his family were imprisoned and forced to confess to spying. They died in the prison from the mistreatment of the Red Guards in 1969. Deng Xiao Ping was accused by the Red Guards, discharged from all of his important positions in the party and sent to work in the remote country. Another important person was Zhu De, the chairman of the National People’s Congress and the chief commander of the PLA, who offended Mao. He was attacked and denounced by the Red Guards. Also, he was demoted from all of his political positions. Both Zhu De and Deng Xiao Ping were threatened similarly.

The destruction of Chinese youth

Later, the Red Guards got out of control. There were conflicts and fighting among the groups of the Red Guards and they became barbarians who attacked defenseless people. Therefore, Mao Tse Tung called the PLA to subdue them and manage the crisis; “In areas where the Red Guards were using violence, the PLA stepped in to disarm and disband them” (Brooman, 1998, p39.) Most of the Red Guards, around 18 million people, were sent to work in rural areas to “learn ‘revolutionary values’ from the peasants” (Tan, 1993, p33), and some of them were killed.

From the time the Red Guards had been formed, most youths joined into the political activities, and left their old ways of life. The family life was broken in most Chinese families. The destruction of Chinese youth happened to all the Red Guards. In addition, the most important thing, their education, was abandoned. After the small groups of the Red Guards had succeeded in following the Cultural Revolution campaign, Mao Tse Tung commanded the closure of all public colleges and universities for six months and encouraged all youths to join the Red Guards. However, the situation got out of hand, so the colleges and the universities were postponed to re-open in the next four years. This was not the end of the problem because millions of the Red Guards were sent to work in the remote country after their subjugation and they did not have a chance to come back to study. In 1981, the estimated number of illiterate people in China under the age of 45 was about 120 million people (Brooman, 1998, p39.)

These were only three main obvious damages from the Cultural Revolution, the actual losses of China were much more than these.

Mao and his unjust society

Patriotism was a value which Mao used to persuade people to cooperate with his campaign. Many people followed his persuasion and did things he wanted without thinking that the consequences would hurt themselves soon after. All Chinese people did not gain equality or freedom, the values related to patriotism.

What Chinese people really got was unfair. At the beginning, Mao Tse Tung set up “The Red Guards”, the youth military groups, to join in the political activities and follow his campaign. Without good management from Mao, the Red Guards got out of control. At the end, he called the PLA to subdue the Red Guards. Some were killed and tortured, and some were sent to work in the remote country to “learn ‘revolutionary values’ from the peasants” (Tan, 1993, p.33.) This sounded like Mao made use of the services of the Red Guards when he needed help, and then eradicated them when he thought they were useless.

The Cultural Revolution was unjust for the Chinese people. Many people were framed and condemned by the Red Guards and the PLA, without the course of justice, if they were seen or likely to be the resisters of Maoism such as the revisionists, and the capitalists. “A prisoner called Yang Bao Yin was summarily executed by firing squad for writing the words ‘Overthrow Chairman Mao’ and his brains were eaten by a Public Security Cadre” (Becker, 1996, p.218.)

Lastly, the Cultural Revolution was unsafe. In order to eliminate the gap between the rich and the poor, the government officers came to each village and confiscated lands and properties of the landlords and rich peasants, and then redistributed the lands and properties among people in the village. However, there was no reason why the government officers had to encourage the peasants in the village to kill those landlords and rich peasants.

The benefits from the Cultural Revolution

Some people looked over those damages and thought that the Cultural Revolution was not that terrible due to the facts that China had some developments from this revolution.

“The new-rural policies regenerated the program to build industrial enterprises in the countryside. Most rural industries initially were established to assist agricultural production” (Meisner, 1999, p.358.) Actually, the goal in making industrialization to the rural areas had been announced to the country since the Great Leap Forward Campaign in 1958. However, it did not succeed at that time. So Mao Tse Tung revived his project again in the Cultural Revolution. This made developments in industry and agriculture expand through the rural areas of China. The new techniques in order to produce greater agricultural products were introduced to peasants. By the end of the Cultural Revolution, most counties in China had their own small factories which could produce several kinds of products.

“The emphasis on education was shifted from the cities to the countryside” (Meisner, 1999, p.359.) Before 1966, the number and quality of educational institutions in urban areas and rural areas were distinctively different. The sons and daughters of the rich families, party and government officials also had more opportunities to attend middle schools and universities than the poor. There was criticism of Mao Tse Tung in 1964 that “the present method of education ruins talent and ruins youth” (Meisner, 1999, p.361.) At the time all schools and universities were re-opened in 1970, and the educational system as a whole had great changes. The Government supported more educational funds to the countryside. More numbers of schools and universities were established in new areas. “Admissions criteria, curricula, tuition fees, entrance examinations, and age limits on student attendance” (Meisner, 1999, p.362), were all changed to give more chances for rural youth to get higher education.

There were also developments of the medical care in the countryside along with the educational developments. Mao Tse Tung “suggested a greater emphasis on preventive medicine and the treatment of “commonly seen, frequently occurring, and widespread diseases” rather than the study of “rare, profound, and difficult diseases at the so-called pinnacle of science” (Meisner, 1999, p.360.) He said that, “We should leave behind in the city a few of the less able doctors who graduated one or two years ago, and the others should all go into the countryside” (Meisner, 1999, p.361.) There were three main methods to develop the medical care in the countryside. Firstly, students in the medical schools were trained in the new shorter programs to serve needs in the rural areas. Secondly, the numbers of clinics and medical schools in the countryside were increased. Thirdly, the medicines were adjusted.

In addition, as a result of the revolution, China became developed because Mao had destroyed the “Four Olds” and invented new patterns of living for Chinese people.

Although there were some developments in the Cultural Revolution, Mao did not give any actual value to the people in the Cultural Revolution. The question is, “Were the benefits worth more than the things China lost?”

The end of the Cultural Revolution

In 1969, Mao Tse Tung announced the end of the Cultural Revolution. Capitalism was completely destroyed. China became a closed country, which tried to have less contact with other countries. On Mao Tse Tung’s side, he could regain his authority in the Communist Party and become even stronger in his political position. He could also overcome the “Gang of Four”, whom had tried to seize his power.

However, the Cultural Revolution was a long continuous campaign which really ended at the same time Mao Tse Tung’s life ended, in 1976. “The Communist Party of China denounced this period as a grave error, in 1981” (Powerhouse Museum, 2003, p.4.)

Although the Cultural Revolution made some progress in developing the country as above-mentioned, these could not cover the costs of things that China had lost and damaged. If there was no Cultural Revolution, China would be better than it is today. Old ideas, culture and customs, which had been accumulated and passed on from generation to generation, would not have been destroyed. The conflicts with foreign countries would not have happened. More than 400,000 people would not have been killed and countless people would not have been abused. Also, the rate of illiterate people would not have been very high. In addition, if Mao did not close the country, China might be more developed than it is because the foreign countries could introduce some inventions and discoveries to China.

However, the Cultural Revolution has already happened, and no one can ever change it. The only thing we can do is to study the past and not let the history repeat itself once again.

Although the Cultural Revolution campaign failed and cost a lot to China, in the eyes of the Chinese people Mao never lost his honor. He is the emperor of the modern China in Chinese’s thoughts. There are many statues of him in China and no books can talk about the modern China without him. People still give respect to him even at the present time. Mao Tse Tung made great changes in China, and if there was no Mao, China would not be like it is today. His name is part of China’s long, remarkable history.

Annotated bibliography

– Barnett, A. Doak. “China’s Far West.” Colorado: Westview Press Inc., 1993. p.9, 10, 20, 24, 52, 62, 86, 101, 108-110, 141-145, 154, 158, 173-174, 184, 190, 200, 215, 236, 248, 257, 259, 288, 305, 317, 325, 327-328, 366, 375, 402, 442, 446, 461-462, 484, 494-495, 541, 569, 609, 616, 621, 625, 632, 635, 658.
Master sinologist A. Doak Barnett judged the changes that have occurred in China since 1949 into “Four Decades of Change,” and can be divided into eight main regions in different period of times: Baotou, Ningxia, Bayanhaote, Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Ganzi, and Yunnan. He described the Cultural Revolution and its affects with comprehensive and clear explanation.

– Becker, Jasper. “Hungry Ghosts: Mao’s secret famine.” Ontario: Fitzhenry & Whiteside Ltd., 1996. p.33, 49, 61, 176, 179, 218, 235, 238, 244-5, 252-253, 255, 275, 282, 284.
Hungry Ghosts is the horrific story of the state-sponsored terror, cannibalism, torture, and murder during Mao’s administration. Most articles in this book are the interviews from Chinese people who suffered by Mao, and revealing how the famine and terror could have been kept secret for so long.

– Brooman, Josh. “China since 1900.” New York: Longman Inc., 1998. p.10-45.
The series looks at the history of China in the twentieth century and describes a country which made the leap from imperial rule to communism, a century of rebellion, revolution and war. There are three main parts of the book which are Pre-Communist China, China at war, and China under Communist rule. They are all related to Mao Tse Tung from the beginning that he set up the Chinese Communist Party and passed through his death. This book is detailed and very useful.

– Dell, W.Richard. “The world book encyclopedia: C-Ch.” Illinois: World book Inc., 1992. p.430-470.
The encyclopedia book has many series about China which can be divided into 8 main parts: China in brief, government, people, way of life, land, climate, economy, and history. In the part of history, it explained all the period of Chinese history from the prehistoric times to the dynasty, the communist, and China at the present time.

– Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. “Cambridge Illustrated History: China.” Oxford: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, 1996. p.286-288, 294-296, 300-302, 305-322.
This book is an illustrated history of China of over eight thousand years from prehistoric times through the modern communist state. The section entitled ‘The People’s Republic of China’ gives in depth histories about the communist victory, and radical reunification: China since 1949, how Mao Tse Tung governed and improved China, and how his revolution affected all Chinese.

– Ferroa, Peggy. “Cultures of the world: China.” Singapore: Times Editions Pte, Ltd., 1991. p.28-29.
Ferroa’s book presents diverse topics on China; the origins of the people, their economy and history, their varied languages, religions, festivals, customs, and more. The topic ‘History of The People’s Republic of China.’ explains about the situation among that period and discusses on how Mao’s two main campaigns, the great leap forward and the Cultural Revolution, changed many things in China and lasted a long time.

– Gray, Jack. “Rebellions and Revolutions: China from the 1800s to the 1980s.” New York: Oxford University Press Inc., 1990. p.326-372.
Gray’s book explains the rebellions and revolutions of China from the 1800s to the 1980s in 18 main chapters. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution’s content was divided into two chapters. The first chapter is the beginning of the revolution from 1963 to 1967. The second chapter is the ending and the aftermath of the revolution from 1967 to 1976.

– Meisner, Maurice J. “Mao’s China and after.” New York: The Free Press, 1999. p.291-410
Meisner’s book is a piercing insight and comprehensive coverage of China’s modern history. The topic entitled ‘The Cultural Revolution and its aftermath’ describes this revolution in four main parts: the concept of Cultural Revolution, the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in 1966-1969, social results of the Cultural Revolution, and the aftermath of the Cultural Revolution and the close of the Maoist Era in 1969-1976.

– Tan, Pamela. “Woman in society: China.” Singapore: Times Editions Pte, Ltd., 1993. p.32-33.
The series in this book is about how Chinese women live and an insight into women and their changing roles through histories. The topic entitled ‘People’s Republic of China’ explains the period during Mao Tse Tung’s government, and the changes of people’s lifestyle which caused by the new laws and the new campaigns of his government. This book is much specific on woman and explains not much about what really happened in the situation.

– Terrill, Ross. “Mao: A Biography.” California: Standford University Press, 1995. p.21-22, 24, 27, 337-366, 437-439, 453, 466, 472, 477, 479, 482, 485.
This is comprehensive and authoritative biography of Mao Tse Tung, enriched by much new information only recently made available in China. Terill divided Mao’s biography into 23 main topics by using time period. The Cultural Revolution’s topic was called “The Furies of Utopia.” He showed some of Mao’s words and his conversations with people, and plenty of causes and effects of this revolution.

– Wasserstrom, Jeffrey N. and Perry, Elizabeth J. “Popular Protest & Political Culture in Modern China.” Colorado: Westview Press, Inc., 1992. p.2-3, 6-7, 15, 17-18, 20, 22-23, 24, 29-30, 33, 50, 68, 70, 77, 79, 81, 85, 94-95, 99-100, 103, 105, 111-112, 116, 118-119, 130, 139, 147, 160, 173, 181, 191, 193, 206, 223, 256, 258-259, 268.
The book explains the dramatic impact that 1989 has had on academic thinking and events in China. It also assembles cumulatively link 1989 back in time to the reform attempts of the Qing Dynasty and the republic. In the part of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, Wasserstrom and Perry said about how this revolution affected to China in several ways such as the Chinese Communist Party, the intellectuals, the media, the rituals and the society as a whole.

– “People’s Republic of China (1949-Present)” [Website] from , 2000. p.1-4.
This website is entitled “People’s Republic of China (1949-Present)” and separated major events and people into subgroups which are Land Reform, Introduction of the Iron Rice Bowl, Great Leap Forward, Cultural Revolution, Death of Mao Tse Tung, Deng Xiao Ping, Reform, and Return of Hong Kong and Macao. The detail in this websites is not very much, so there is few useful information.

– Chinatown-online Ltd. “History: The People’s Republic of China.” [Website] from , 1998. p.1-4.
“History: The People’s Republic of China” is entitled on the top of this website. It explains the founding of the People’s Republic of China, Mao Tse Tung’s new laws and regulations, his important campaigns especially the Cultural Revolution, and China after Mao’s death. The explanation in this websites is quite general, and it is not very detailed.

– Powerhouse museum. “The Cultural Revolution: the Four Olds.” [Website] from , 2003. p.1-4.
The website mostly explains about Chinese dress from 1700s to 1900s and also specific to the period of the Cultural Revolution. It shows many pictures and talks about how the Cultural Revolution changed the “Four Olds” (old ideas, old culture, old customs, and old habits), and the failure of this campaign.

– Vierboom, Francis. “MAO TSE-TUNG: A Biography.” [Website] from , 2000. p.1-7.
The website publishes an essay of the Australian student. The topic is ‘MAO TSE-TUNG: A Biography’ which discusses about the beginning of Mao’s life, the civil war, the chairman Mao and all of his campaigns, and China after Mao. The content of this essay is good but he wrote too complicated.


1. Barnett, A. Doak. China’s Far West. Colorado: Westview Press Inc., 1993.

2. Becker, Jasper. Hungry Ghosts: Mao’s secret famine. Ontario: Fitzhenry & Whiteside Ltd., 1996.

3. Brooman, Josh. China since 1900. New York: Longman Inc., 1998.

4. Dell, W.Richard. The world book encyclopedia: C-Ch. Illinois: World book Inc., 1992.

5. Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. Cambridge Illustrated History: China. Oxford: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, 1996.

6. Ferroa, Peggy. Cultures of the world: China. Singapore: Times Editions Pte, Ltd., 1991.

7. Gray, Jack. Rebellions and Revolutions: China from the 1800s to the 1980s. New York: Oxford University Press Inc., 1990.

8. Meisner, Maurice J. Mao’s China and after. New York: The Free Press, 1999.

9. Oxford University Press. Oxford Student’s Dictionary of English. New York: Oxford University Press Inc., 2001.

10. Tan, Pamela. Woman in society: China. Singapore: Times Editions Pte, Ltd., 1993.

11. Terrill, Ross. Mao: A Biography. California: Standford University Press, 1995.

12. Wasserstrom, Jeffrey N. and Perry, Elizabeth J. Popular Protest & Political Culture in Modern China. Colorado: Westview Press, Inc., 1992.

13. People’s Republic of China (1949-Present.) [Website] from , 2000.

14. Chinatown-online Ltd. History: The People’s Republic of China. [Website] from , 1998.

15. Powerhouse museum. The Cultural Revolution: the Four Olds. [Website] from , 2003.

16. Vierboom, Francis. MAO TSE-TUNG: A Biography. [Website] from , 2000.


2 responses »

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